Archive for the Reading Notes Category

Chapter 14 Notes

Posted in Reading Notes on April 30, 2009 by icetrey

Chapter 14 discusses news releases and things of that nature.  Here is what I found to be important:


What is a News Release?

  • Simple document whose main purpose is the dissemination of information to mass media such as newspapers, broadcast stations, and magazines.


Here are a few questions that should be answered in a news release:

  • What is the key message?
  • Who is the primary audience for the release?
  • What does the target audience gain from the product or service?
  • What objective does the release serve?


Here are the 3 reasons for using the inverted pyramid structure in a news release:

– If the editor doesn’t find anything interesting in the first 3 or 4 lines, it won’t be used.

– Editors cut stories from the bottom.

– Readers don’t always read the full story.


What are Media Alerts?

  • Memos used to let the media know about an interview opportunity with a visiting expert or alert them that a local person will be featured on a network t.v. program.


What is a Fact Sheet?

  • A document distributed to the media as part of a media kit or with a news release to give additional background information about the product, person or event.


Media Kits

  • Prepared for major events and new product launches. 


Here are the basic elements of a media kit:

  • The main news release
  • A news feature about the development of the product
  • Fact sheets on the product
  • Background information
  • Photos and drawings with captions
  • Biographical material on the spokesperson
  • Basic brochures

Pitch Letters

  • A short letter or note to the editor that tries to grab their attention. 

Chapter 11 Notes

Posted in Reading Notes on April 30, 2009 by icetrey

Chapter 11 discussed how to reach a multicultural audience.  Here are a few things I pulled out of this chapter:

  • It is essential to figure out exactly who your target audience is.  Once we figure this out, we then must do our research on them. Understand what they do and do not believe in.  Also, understand what type of people your target audience will follow, and act wisely.


  • It is very important to have a spokesperson, or “face of the brand/product” that can directly relate and appeal to your target audience.  A spokesperson can help and hurt you tremendously.


Here are the top 3 minority groups:

  1. Hispanics
  2. African-Americans
  3. Asian Americans


Here is a list of emerging audiences in today’s society:

  1. Catholic and Evangelical Groups
  2. The Gay/Lesbian Community
  3. The Disability Community
  4. Women

Chapter 9 Notes

Posted in Reading Notes on April 30, 2009 by icetrey

Here are a few key points I picked out while reading chapter nine:

Chapter nine discusses Public Opinion and Persuassion.

Public Opinion is defined as opinions on controversial issues that one can express in public without isolating oneself.


Key Points:

  • Public opinion is hard to measure.  This is because the public almost never has a unanimous opinion. 

  • Publics react strongly to events.

  • Public discussion leads to better public opinion. 

  • Clear persuasive communication is crucial

  • It is crucial to know who your audience is and what they are about. 
  • Chapter 8 Notes

    Posted in Reading Notes on April 30, 2009 by icetrey

    Chapter 8 describes the evaluation process.  Here are a few notes I put together while reading the chapter:


    Evaluation is the 4th step in the PR process. (RACE)

    The purpose of an evaluation is to measure data, stats, and other forms of results; then relate them to our objectives.

     Here are the most widely used methods for evaluating pubic relations efforts:

    1. Measurement of production
    2. Message exposure
    3. Audience awareness
    4. Audience attitudes
    5. Audience action

    Many times, a PR practitioner will use a combination of methods to evaluate a program. 


    There are four types of ways to measure supplemantal activities:

    • Communication Audits
    • Pilot Tests
    • Meeting and Event Attendance
    • Newsletter readership

    Chapter 7 Notes

    Posted in Reading Notes on April 30, 2009 by icetrey

    This chapter talked about communication within Public Relations.  Here are some key points…


    To be an effective communicator a person must have basic knowledge of:

    • what constitutes communication and how people receive the messages
    • what kinds of media and communication tools are most appropriate for a particular message
    • how people process information and change their perceptions  


    A communicator should ask if the message is:

    – Appropriate

    – Meaningful

    – Memorable

    – Understandable

    – Believable to the prospective recipient


    Here are some possible objectives for a communicator:

    – Message exposure 

    – Accurate dissemination of the message 

    – Acceptance of the message

    – Attitude change 

    – Change in overt behavior


    There are 2 different types of audiences:

    Passive Audiences:

    • They only pay attention if they think you are entertaining.


    Active audiences

    • That are actually interested in what you are talking about and seek information actively.


    The 5 Stage Adoption Process:

    1. Awareness
    2. Interest
    3. Evaluation
    4. Trail
    5. Adoption

    The 5 Factors That Affect The Adoption Process:

    1. Relative advantage
    2. Compatibility
    3. Complexity
    4. Trialability
    5. Observability

    Chapter 6 Notes:

    Posted in Reading Notes on April 30, 2009 by icetrey

    This chapter dealt with Program Planning.  here are a few things I chose to highlight as I read through the chapter.

    This is the Second step in RACE acronym

    (Research, ACTION, Communication, Evaluation)


    Strategic Planning Model and Management by Objective

    • Strategic Planning Model: working thorough a check list.
    • Its organizational model makes sense to professional and clients alike
    • Management by Objective provides focus and direction for formulation strategy to achieve specific organizational objectives

    Elements of Program Planning

    • Situation
    • Objectives
    • Audience
    • Strategy
    • Tactics
    • Calender/timetable
    • Budget
    • Evaluation

    Chapter 5 Notes

    Posted in Reading Notes on April 30, 2009 by icetrey

    This chapter was on research.  here’s a few key things I learned while reading this chapter:

    Research is a multipronged tool that is involved in virtually every phase of a communication program.

    Research is a very important aspect of public relations that has many different purposes.  Some of these purposes include, but are not limited to:

    • Monitor competition
    • Change the public’s opinion
    • Prevent crisis’ from happening
    • Achieve respect with management

    Also… Research comes in various types:

    • Surveys
    • Personal Interviews
    • Focus groups
    • Local Market Research
    • Secondary Research

    Secondary Research can include research gained from someone else’s prior research.  This can include research found on the Internet,  in the library, and in media databases. 

    Also, the most expensive form of research is surveys.